This is a document for PGroonga 2.X. See PGroonga 1.x document when you're using old PGroonga.

Streaming replication by WAL resource manager

PGroonga supports WAL resource manager based on PostgreSQL Custom WAL Resource Managers since 3.2.1. Custom WAL resource managers is available since PostgreSQL 15.

This makes the operation of WAL based streaming replication simple.

PGroonga's WAL is processed as the following:

sequenceDiagram
    box transparent Primary
        participant User
        participant PGroonga
        participant WAL sender
    end
    box transparent Standby
        participant WAL receiver
        participant PGroonga WAL resource manager
    end

    User->>+PGroonga:INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE
    Note right of PGroonga:Write WAL
    PGroonga->>+WAL sender:Notify write WAL
    WAL sender->>+WAL receiver:Send WAL
    WAL receiver->>+PGroonga WAL resource manager:Call
    Note right of PGroonga WAL resource manager:Apply WAL

This document describes how to configure PostgreSQL built-in WAL based streaming replication in combination with PGroonga WAL resource manager. Most of steps are normal steps. There are some PGroonga specific steps.

Summary

Here are steps to configure PostgreSQL built-in WAL based streaming replication in combination with PGroonga WAL resource manager. "[normal]" tag means that the step is a normal step for streaming replication. "[special]" tag means that the step is a PGroonga specific step.

  1. [normal] Install PostgreSQL on both primary and standbys

  2. [special] Install PGroonga on both primary and standbys

  3. [normal] Configure PostgreSQL for streaming replication on primary

  4. [special] Configure PostgreSQL for PGroonga on primary

  5. [normal] Insert data on primary

  6. [special] Create a PGroonga index on primary

  7. [special] Flush PGroonga related data on primary

  8. [normal] Run pg_basebackup on standbys

  9. [special] Configure PostgreSQL for PGroonga on standbys

  10. [normal] Start PostgreSQL on standbys

This document uses the following environment:

This document shows command lines for Ubuntu 24.04. If you're using other platforms, adjust command lines by yourself.

[normal] Install PostgreSQL on both primary and standbys

This is a normal step.

Install PostgreSQL 16 on both primary and standbys:

sudo apt install -y gpg lsb-release wget
wget --quiet -O - https://www.postgresql.org/media/keys/ACCC4CF8.asc | sudo gpg --no-default-keyring --keyring /usr/share/keyrings/pdgd-keyring.gpg --import -
echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/pdgd-keyring.gpg] http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ $(lsb_release -cs)-pgdg main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list
sudo apt update
sudo apt install -y postgresql-16

[special] Install PGroonga on both primary and standbys

This is a PGroonga specific step.

Install PGroonga on both primary and standbys.

sudo apt install -y software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository -y universe
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:groonga/ppa
sudo apt install -y lsb-release
wget https://packages.groonga.org/ubuntu/groonga-apt-source-latest-$(lsb_release --codename --short).deb
sudo apt install -y -V ./groonga-apt-source-latest-$(lsb_release --codename --short).deb
rm -f groonga-apt-source-latest-$(lsb_release --codename --short).deb
sudo apt update
sudo apt install -y -V postgresql-16-pgdg-pgroonga

[normal] Configure PostgreSQL for streaming replication on primary

This is a normal step.

Add the following streaming replication configurations to postgresql.conf on only primary:

If you have many standbys, you need to specify max_wal_senders too. The default max_wal_senders is 10. 10 is enough value for 2 standbys.

See also PostgreSQL: Documentation: Replication.

/etc/postgresql/16/main/postgresql.conf:

Before:

#listen_addresses = 'localhost'

After:

listen_addresses = 'localhost,192.168.0.30'

Add the following streaming replication configurations to pg_hba.conf on only primary:

/etc/postgresql/16/main/pg_hba.conf:

Before:

local   replication     all                                     peer
host    replication     all             127.0.0.1/32            scram-sha-256
host    replication     all             ::1/128                 scram-sha-256

After:

local   replication     all                                     peer
host    replication     all             127.0.0.1/32            scram-sha-256
host    replication     all             ::1/128                 scram-sha-256
host    replication     all             192.168.0.0/24          scram-sha-256

Create the user for replication on only primary:

$ sudo -u postgres -H createuser --pwprompt --replication replicator
Enter password for new role: (passw0rd)
Enter it again: (passw0rd)

[special] Configure PostgreSQL for PGroonga on primary

This is a PGroonga specific step.

You need to add PGroonga's WAL resource manager related configurations and crash safe related configurations.

For PGroonga's WAL resource manager, you need to add pgroonga_wal_resource_manager module to shared_preload_libraries parameter and add pgronga.enable_wal_resource_manager = on.

For crash safe, you need to add pgroonga_crash_safer module module to shared_preload_libraries parameter and add pgroonga.crash_safe = on.

NOTE: pgroonga_crash_safer module reduces write performance. There is a trade-off for easy to maintain and performance. If you need maximum write performance, you can't use this module. See also Crash safe for the trade-off.

/etc/postgresql/16/main/postgresql.conf:

Before:

#shared_preload_libraries = ''

After:

shared_preload_libraries = 'pgroonga_wal_resource_manager,pgroonga_crash_safer'

/etc/postgresql/16/main/conf.d/pgroonga.conf:

pgroonga.enable_wal_resource_manager = on
pgroonga.enable_crash_safe = on

If you don't use pgroonga_crash_safer module, you need to remove pgroonga_crash_safer from shared_preload_libraries and remove pgroonga.enable_crash_safe = on.

Restart PostgreSQL to apply the configuration:

sudo -H systemctl restart postgresql

[normal] Insert data on primary

This is a normal step.

Create a normal user on only primary:

sudo -u postgres -H createuser ${USER}

Create a database on only primary:

sudo -u postgres -H createdb --template template0 --locale C --encoding UTF-8 --owner ${USER} blog

Create a table in the created database on only primary.

Connect to the created blog database:

psql blog

Create entries table:

CREATE TABLE entries (
  title text,
  body text
);

Insert data to the created entries table:

INSERT INTO entries VALUES ('PGroonga', 'PGroonga is a PostgreSQL extension for fast full text search that supports all languages. It will help us.');
INSERT INTO entries VALUES ('Groonga', 'Groonga is a full text search engine used by PGroonga. We did not know about it.');
INSERT INTO entries VALUES ('PGroonga and replication', 'PGroonga 3.2.1 supports custom WAL resource manager. We should try it!');

[special] Create a PGroonga index on primary

This is a PGroonga specific step.

Install PGroonga to the database. It requires superuser privilege:

sudo -u postgres -H psql blog --command "CREATE EXTENSION pgroonga;"
sudo -u postgres -H psql blog --command "GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA pgroonga TO ${USER};"

Connect to PostgreSQL by a normal user again:

psql blog

Create a PGroonga index on only primary:

CREATE INDEX entries_full_text_search ON entries USING pgroonga (title, body);

Confirm the index:

SET enable_seqscan TO off;
SELECT title FROM entries WHERE title &@~ 'replication';
--           title           
-- --------------------------
--  PGroonga and replication
-- (1 row)

[special] Flush PGroonga related data on primary

This is a PGroonga specific step.

Ensure writing PGroonga related data on memory to disk on only primary. You can choose one of them:

  1. Run SELECT pgroonga_command('io_flush');

  2. Disconnect all connections

Here is an example to use pgroonga_command('io_flush'):

SELECT pgroonga_command('io_flush') AS command;
--                     command                    
-- -----------------------------------------------
--  [[0,1478446349.2241,0.1413860321044922],true]
-- (1 row)

You must not change tables that use PGroonga indexes on primary until the next pg_basebackup step is finished.

[normal] Run pg_basebackup on standbys

This is a normal step.

Run pg_basebackup on only standbys. It copies the current database from primary.

Standbys:

sudo -H systemctl stop postgresql
sudo -u postgres -H rm -rf /var/lib/postgresql/16/main

Standby1:

You should use Replication Slots for simple WAL management.

$ sudo -u postgres -H pg_basebackup --create-slot --slot standby1 \
  --host 192.168.0.30 --pgdata /var/lib/postgresql/16/main --progress --username replicator --write-recovery-conf
Password: (passw0rd)
158949/158949 kB (100%), 1/1 tablespace

Standby2:

You should use Replication Slots for simple WAL management.

$ sudo -u postgres -H pg_basebackup --create-slot --slot standby2 \
  --host 192.168.0.30 --pgdata /var/lib/postgresql/16/main --progress --username replicator --write-recovery-conf
Password: (passw0rd)
158949/158949 kB (100%), 1/1 tablespace

[special] Configure PostgreSQL for PGroonga on standbys

This is a PGroonga specific step.

Add the following modules to shared_preload_libraries parameter:

NOTE: In standby, pgroonga_crash_safer is not needed. pgroonga_wal_resource_manager module has crash recovery feature too.

Standbys:

/etc/postgresql/16/main/postgresql.conf:

Before:

#shared_preload_libraries = ''

After:

shared_preload_libraries = 'pgroonga_wal_resource_manager'

[normal] Start PostgreSQL on standbys

This is a normal step.

Start PostgreSQL on standbys:

sudo -H systemctl start postgresql

Now, you can search data inserted on primary by PGroonga index created on primary.

Standby1:

SET enable_seqscan TO off;
SELECT title FROM entries WHERE title &@~ 'replication';
--           title           
-- --------------------------
--  PGroonga and replication
-- (1 row)

You can also search data inserted on primary after pg_basebackup.

Primary:

INSERT INTO entries VALUES ('PostgreSQL 15 and replication', 'PostgreSQL supports custom WAL resource manager since 15.');

Standby1:

SELECT title FROM entries WHERE title &@~ 'replication';
-              title              
-- -------------------------------
--  PGroonga and replication
--  PostgreSQL 15 and replication
-- (2 rows)

Standby2:

SET enable_seqscan TO off;
SELECT title FROM entries WHERE title &@~ 'replication';
--             title              
-- -------------------------------
--  PGroonga and replication
--  PostgreSQL 15 and replication
-- (2 rows)